Český Brod is lying east of Prague at the edge of the middle Elbe Basin and appearing headland of the Middle-Bohemian Highlands. Český Brod, proclaimed zone of historical monuments in 1990, is counted among the oldest Czech towns and also contributed to their development. The town Český Brod was probably founded by Prague's bishop Jan I. (1134 - 1139) at one of the most important land paths - Trstenická path, which had connected Prague with southern and eastern Europe.
The new market settlement with a roman church of St. Gothard and a large market was established at a mild knoll above the ford over Šembera stream, where probably stayed also a bishop's custom - house. Probably in 1268 Prague's bishop Jan III. of Dražice proclaimed the local market settlement a town named Biskupský Brod (Broda Episcopalis, Bishop's ford) and probably at the same time conferred to the town also hereditary right and other town rights, above all right of fortification wall. In 1315, when Ronovs with 500 men-at-arms occupied Brod, the town had already been using altered name Český Brod (Broda Bohemicalis, Czech ford). This way should the town have been differentiated from Německý Brod (German ford) which was lying at the same path. In connection with development of town's local governments Český Brod as the first servitude town in Bohemia and Moravia built the town hall already before 1402. In the Hussite Revolution, before which the archbishop’s district of Český Brod expired, the town aimed political and administrative autonomy, Roman king Sigismund raised Český Brod to the Kingstown in 1437.
Český Brod is an old gothic town with many historical building monuments. Cathedral of St. Gothard, late gothic belfry and the old town hall are counted among the most important ones. Houses of the town historical core usually have cellars, by which is possible to get into an underground corridor system. Part of this underground system has already been uncovered.
In new era is significant year 1960, when state authorities cancelled district of Český Brod an the region joined Kolín district.